Jun 06, · The Potsdam Conference, held near Berlin, July August 2, , was the last of the Big Three meetings during World War II. It was attended by . Potsdam Conference, (July 17–August 2, ), Allied conference of World War II held at Potsdam, a suburb of Berlin. The chief participants were U.S. President Harry S. Truman, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill (or Clement Attlee, who became prime minister during the conference), and Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin.
This planned meeting was to be their third gathering, the first having been the November Tehran Conference. With the German surrender on May 8, the leaders scheduled a conference in the German town of Potsdam for July. Truman ascended to the presidency. Though a relative neophyte in foreign affairs, Truman was what is the potsdam conference more suspicious of Stalin's motives and desires in Eastern Europe than his predecessor.
Departing for Potsdam with Secretary of State James Byrnes, Truman hoped to reverse some the concessions that Roosevelt had given Stalin in the name of maintaining Allied unity during the war. Meeting at the Schloss Cecilienhof, the talks began on July Presiding over the conference, Truman was initially aided by Churchill's experience in dealing with Stalin.
This came to an abrupt halt on July 26 when Churchill's Conservative Party was stunningly defeated in the general elections. Held on July 5, the announcement of the results was delayed in order to accurately count votes coming from British forces serving abroad. Lacking Churchill's vast experience and independent spirit, Attlee frequently deferred to Truman during the latter stages of the talks.
As the conference began, Truman learned of the Trinity Test in New Mexico which signaled the successful completion of the Manhattan Project and the creation of the first atom bomb. Sharing this information with Stalin on July 24, he hoped that the new weapon's existence would strengthen his hand in dealing with the Soviet leader. This new failed to impress Stalin as he had learned of the Manhattan Project through his spy network and was aware of its progress. As talks commenced, the leaders confirmed that both Germany and Austria would be divided into four zones of occupation.
Pressing on, Truman sought to mitigate the Soviet Union's demand for heavy reparations from Germany. Believing that the severe reparations levied by the post-World War I Treaty of Versailles had crippled the German economy leading the rise of the Nazis, Truman worked to limit war reparations.
The leaders also agreed that Germany should be demilitarized, identified and that all war criminals should be prosecuted. To achieve the first of these, industries associated with creating war materials were eliminated or reduced with the new German economy to be based on agriculture and domestic manufacturing.
Among the what is the difference between a dmd and dds decisions to be reached at Potsdam were those pertaining to Poland.
As part of the Potsdam talks, the U. In addition, Truman reluctantly agreed to accede to Soviet demands that Poland's new western border lay along the Oder-Neisse Line. The use of these rivers to denote the new border saw Germany lose nearly a quarter of its prewar territory with most going to Poland and a large part of East Prussia to the Soviets. Though Bevin argued against the Oder-Neisse Line, Truman effectively traded this territory to gain concessions on the reparations issue.
The transfer of this territory led to the displacement of large numbers of ethnic Germans and remained controversial for what is a hummingbirds predators. In addition to these issues, the Potsdam Conference saw the Allies agree to the formation of a Council of Foreign Ministers that would prepare peace treaties with Germany's former allies.
The Allied leaders also agreed to revise the Montreux Convention, which gave Turkey sole control over the Turkish Straits, that the U. The results of the Potsdam Conference were formally presented in the Potsdam Agreement which was issued at the meeting's end on August 2.
Reiterating the call what college courses are needed to become a probation officer unconditional surrender, the Declaration stipulated that Japanese sovereignty was to be limited to the home islands, war criminals would be prosecuted, authoritarian government was to end, the military would be disarmed, and that an occupation would ensue.
Despite these terms, it also emphasized that the Allies did not seek to destroy the Japanese as a people. Japan refused these terms despite an Allied threat that "prompt and utter destruction" would ensue.
Reacting, to the Japanese, Truman ordered the atomic bomb to be used. The use of the new weapon on Hiroshima August 6 and Nagasaki August 9 ultimately led to the surrender of Japan on September 2. Departing Potsdam, the Allied leaders would not meet again. The frosting over of US-Soviet relations that began during the conference ultimately escalated in the Cold War.
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The Potsdam Conference, The Big Three—Soviet leader Joseph Stalin, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill (replaced on July 26 by Prime Minister Clement Attlee), and U.S. President Harry Truman —met in Potsdam, Germany, from July 17 to August . The Potsdam Conference The last of the Allied conferences took place from 17 July to 2 August in Potsdam, near Berlin. Six months earlier, in the Crimea, Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin had laid the preparations for the post-war period, but the promises made in Yalta were unable to stand up to the balance of power on the ground. Mar 30, · The Potsdam Declaration On July 26, while at the Potsdam Conference, Churchill, Truman, and Nationalist Chinese leader Chiang Kai-Shek issued the Potsdam Declaration which outlined the terms of surrender for Japan.
President Franklin D. Roosevelt had agreed to meet following the surrender of Germany to determine the postwar borders in Europe. Germany surrendered on May 8, , and the Allied leaders agreed to meet over the summer at Potsdam to continue the discussions that had begun at Yalta.
Although the Allies remained committed to fighting a joint war in the Pacific, the lack of a common enemy in Europe led to difficulties reaching consensus concerning postwar reconstruction on the European continent. The major issue at Potsdam was the question of how to handle Germany. At Yalta, the Soviets had pressed for heavy postwar reparations from Germany, half of which would go to the Soviet Union.
While Roosevelt had acceded to such demands, Truman and his Secretary of State, James Byrnes , were determined to mitigate the treatment of Germany by allowing the occupying nations to exact reparations only from their own zone of occupation.
Truman and Byrnes encouraged this position because they wanted to avoid a repetition of the situation created by the Treaty of Versailles, which had exacted high reparations payments from Germany following World War One. Many experts agreed that the harsh reparations imposed by the Versailles Treaty had handicapped the German economy and fueled the rise of the Nazis. Despite numerous disagreements, the Allied leaders did manage to conclude some agreements at Potsdam.
For example, the negotiators confirmed the status of a demilitarized and disarmed Germany under four zones of Allied occupation. The reconstitution of a national German Government was, however, postponed indefinitely, and the Allied Control Commission which was comprised of four occupying powers, the United States, Britain, France, and the Soviet Union would run the country during the interregnum.
One of the most controversial matters addressed at the Potsdam Conference dealt with the revision of the German-Soviet-Polish borders and the expulsion of several million Germans from the disputed territories. In exchange for the territory it lost to the Soviet Union following the readjustment of the Soviet-Polish border, Poland received a large swath of German territory and began to deport the German residents of the territories in question, as did other nations that were host to large German minority populations.
Conference participants also agreed to revise the Montreux Convention, which gave Turkey sole control over the Turkish Straits. Stalin, however, was already well-informed about the U.
This situation made negotiations challenging. The leaders of the United States, Great Britain, and the Soviet Union, who, despite their differences, had remained allies throughout the war, never met again collectively to discuss cooperation in postwar reconstruction.
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