Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) Factsheet
DDT, abbreviation of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, also called 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl)ethane, a synthetic insecticide belonging to the family of organic halogen compounds, highly toxic toward a wide variety of insects as a contact poison that apparently exerts its effect by disorganizing the nervous system. DDT, also known as dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane, belongs to a class of pesticides known as organochlorides. A synthetic chemical compound that must be made in a laboratory (it doesn't occur in nature), DDT is a colorless, crystalline solid. DDT can't be dissolved in water; it is, however, easily dissolved in organic solvents, fats, or oils.
DDT is one of the most fuol chemical compounds in recent history. It has proven effective as an insecticidebut its potent toxicity isn't limited to insects. Banned by many countries including the United States, DDT is nonetheless still tthe or illegally—in some places.
DDT, also known as dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane, belongs to a class of pesticides known as organochlorides. A synthetic chemical compound how to date for women must be made in a laboratory it doesn't occur in natureDDT is a colorless, crystalline solid.
DDT can't be dissolved in water; it is, however, easily dissolved in organic solvents, fats, or oils. As a result of its tendency to dissolve in fats, DDT can build up in the fatty tissues of animals that are exposed to it.
This accumulated build-up is known as bioaccumulation, and DDT is described by the EPA as a persistent, bio-accumulative toxin. Because of this bioaccumulation, DDT remains in the food chain, moving from crayfish, frogs, and fish into the bodies of animals that eat them.
Therefore, DDT levels are often highest in the bodies of animals near the top of the food chain, notably in predatory birds like eagles, hawks, pelicans, condors, and other meat-eating birds. DDT also has serious health effects on humans. According to the EPADDT can cause liver damage including liver cancer, nervous system damage, congenital disabilities, and what is performance tuning in oracle 10g reproductive harm.
Before the introduction of DDT, insect-borne diseases like malaria, typhus, yellow fever, bubonic plague, and others killed untold millions of people worldwide.
However, some insect populations evolved with a resistance to the insecticide. As the use of DDT spread, a handful of scientists noticed that its reckless use was causing considerable harm to wildlife populations. These scattered reports culminated in the now-famous book Silent Spring by scientist and author Rachel Carson, which describes the dangers of widespread pesticide use. The book's title comes from the effect DDT and other chemicals were having on songbirds, which were disappearing in some regions.
Silent Spring became a best-selling book, and its publication is often credited with the rise of the modern environmental movement. What is the drug valtrex used for the years what is the full form of ddt pesticide followed, scientists worldwide were reporting that birds with high levels of DDT in their bodies were laying eggs that had shells so thin they broke before hatching, causing bird populations to plunge.
And the more DDT the birds had in their bodies, the thinner their eggshells. As evidence of the harm, DDT was causing began to grow, countries worldwide started to ban the chemical or restrict its use. In some countries, however, DDT is still regularly used for controlling mosquitoes and other insects, and it rull still used in agriculture in a few places such as India and sub-Saharan Africa.
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'Forever chemicals' are ruining reproductive abilities and overall health
Friends, nowadays farmers use many types of pesticides in their fields for good crop production so that they can save the crop grown in their fields from pests, then let know about what is DDT Full Form and How is the structure of DDT. What Is DDT Full Form and What is DDT? DDT Stands for “Dichloro Diphenyl Trichloroethane”. What Is DDT Full Form and What is DDT? DDT Stands for “ Dichloro Diphenyl Trichloroethane ”. It is called " ????????? ????????? ??????????????? " in Hindi. It is a colorless, tasteless and almost odorless crystalline Organochloride Substance used as mosquito, bedbug and pesticides in fields. The Full Form of DDT is: Dichloro Diphenyl Trichloro Ethane. (DDT was the first modern pesticide and is arguably the best known organic pesticide. It is a highly hydrophobic colorless solid with a weak, chemical odor that is nearly insoluble in water but has a good .
Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane , commonly known as DDT , is a colorless, tasteless, and almost odorless crystalline chemical compound,  an organochlorine. Originally developed as an insecticide , it became infamous for its environmental impacts. DDT was used in the second half of World War II to limit the spread of the insect-born diseases malaria and typhus among civilians and troops. Although it was promoted by government and industry for use as an agricultural and household pesticide, there were also concerns about its use from the beginning.
It talked about environmental impacts that correlated with the widespread use of DDT in agriculture in the United States, and it questioned the logic of broadcasting potentially dangerous chemicals into the environment with little prior investigation of their environmental and health effects.
The book cited claims that DDT and other pesticides caused cancer and that their agricultural use was a threat to wildlife, particularly birds. Although Carson never directly called for an outright ban on the use of DDT, its publication was a seminal event for the environmental movement and resulted in a large public outcry that eventually led, in , to a ban on DDT's agricultural use in the United States.
A worldwide ban on agricultural use was formalized under the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants which has been in effect since DDT still has limited use in disease vector control because of its effectiveness in killing mosquitos and thus reducing malarial infections, but that use is controversial due to environmental and health concerns.
Along with the passage of the Endangered Species Act , the United States ban on DDT is a major factor in the comeback of the bald eagle the national bird of the United States and the peregrine falcon from near-extinction in the contiguous United States. DDT is similar in structure to the insecticide methoxychlor and the acaricide dicofol.
It is highly hydrophobic and nearly insoluble in water but has good solubility in most organic solvents , fats and oils. Commercial DDT is a mixture of several closely—related compounds.
Due to the nature of the chemical reaction used to synthesize DDT, several combinations of ortho and para arene substitution patterns are formed.
Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene DDE and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane DDD make up the balance of impurities in commercial samples. DDT has been formulated in multiple forms, including solutions in xylene or petroleum distillates , emulsifiable concentrates , water- wettable powders , granules, aerosols , smoke candles and charges for vaporizers and lotions. From to , DDT was extensively used in agriculture — more than 40, tonnes each year worldwide  — and it has been estimated that a total of 1.
Usage peaked in at about 36, tonnes. In , 3, tonnes were produced for malaria control and visceral leishmaniasis. India is the only country still manufacturing DDT, and is the largest consumer.
In insects, DDT opens sodium ion channels in neurons , causing them to fire spontaneously, which leads to spasms and eventual death. The same enzyme family is up-regulated in mammals too, e. Genomic studies in the model genetic organism Drosophila melanogaster revealed that high level DDT resistance is polygenic, involving multiple resistance mechanisms.
Bausch and in two subsequent publications in DDT is the best-known of several chlorine -containing pesticides used in the s and s. With pyrethrum in short supply, DDT was used extensively during World War II by the Allies to control the insect vectors of typhus — nearly eliminating the disease in many parts of Europe. In the South Pacific , it was sprayed aerially for malaria and dengue fever control with spectacular effects.
While DDT's chemical and insecticidal properties were important factors in these victories, advances in application equipment coupled with competent organization and sufficient manpower were also crucial to the success of these programs. In , DDT was made available to farmers as an agricultural insecticide  and played a role in the temporary elimination of malaria in Europe and North America. In , the World Health Organization commenced a program to eradicate malaria in countries with low to moderate transmission rates worldwide, relying largely on DDT for mosquito control and rapid diagnosis and treatment to reduce transmission.
However, failure to sustain the program, increasing mosquito tolerance to DDT, and increasing parasite tolerance led to a resurgence. In many areas early successes partially or completely reversed, and in some cases rates of transmission increased. DDT was less effective in tropical regions due to the continuous life cycle of mosquitoes and poor infrastructure. It was not applied at all in sub-Saharan Africa due to these perceived difficulties. Mortality rates in that area never declined to the same dramatic extent, and now constitute the bulk of malarial deaths worldwide, especially following the disease's resurgence as a result of resistance to drug treatments and the spread of the deadly malarial variant caused by Plasmodium falciparum.
Eradication was abandoned in and attention instead focused on controlling and treating the disease. Spraying programs especially using DDT were curtailed due to concerns over safety and environmental effects, as well as problems in administrative, managerial and financial implementation. By October , DDT was available for public sale in the United States, used both as an agricultural pesticide and as a household insecticide.
Calvery expressed concern over possible hazards associated with DDT as early as Bradbury Robinson , a physician and nutritionist practicing in St. Louis, Michigan , warned of the dangers of using the pesticide DDT in agriculture. DDT had been researched and manufactured in St. Louis by the Michigan Chemical Corporation , later purchased by Velsicol Chemical Corporation ,  and had become an important part of the local economy.
As its production and use increased, public response was mixed. At the same time that DDT was hailed as part of the "world of tomorrow," concerns were expressed about its potential to kill harmless and beneficial insects particularly pollinators , birds, fish, and eventually humans. The issue of toxicity was complicated, partly because DDT's effects varied from species to species, and partly because consecutive exposures could accumulate, causing damage comparable to large doses.
A number of states attempted to regulate DDT. William Shawn, editor of The New Yorker , urged her to write a piece on the subject, which developed into her book Silent Spring. The book argued that pesticides , including DDT, were poisoning both wildlife and the environment and were endangering human health. The year after it appeared, President John F.
Kennedy ordered his Science Advisory Committee to investigate Carson's claims. DDT became a prime target of the growing anti-chemical and anti-pesticide movements, and in a group of scientists and lawyers founded the Environmental Defense Fund EDF with the specific goal of enacting a ban on DDT.
Victor Yannacone , Charles Wurster, Art Cooley and others in the group had all witnessed bird kills or declines in bird populations and suspected that DDT was the cause. In their campaign against the chemical, the EDF petitioned the government for a ban and filed lawsuits.
In response to an EDF suit, the U. After an initial six-month review process, William Ruckelshaus , the Agency's first Administrator rejected an immediate suspension of DDT's registration, citing studies from the EPA's internal staff stating that DDT was not an imminent danger. The decision thus created controversy. In the summer of , Ruckelshaus announced the cancellation of most uses of DDT — exempting public health uses under some conditions.
Many in the agricultural community were concerned that food production would be severely impacted, while proponents of pesticides warned of increased breakouts of insect-borne diseases and questioned the accuracy of giving animals high amounts of pesticides for cancer potential. These included aldrin, dieldrin, chlordane, heptachlor, texaphene, and mirex. Some uses of DDT continued under the public health exemption. In the s and s, agricultural use was banned in most developed countries, beginning with Hungary in ,  followed by Norway and Sweden in , West Germany and the United States in , but not in the United Kingdom until By , total bans, including for disease control, were in place in at least 26 countries; for example, Cuba in , the US in the s, Singapore in , Chile in , and the Republic of Korea in The Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants , which took effect in , put a global ban on several persistent organic pollutants , and restricted DDT use to vector control.
The Convention was ratified by more than countries. For the first time, there is now an insecticide which is restricted to vector control only, meaning that the selection of resistant mosquitoes will be slower than before.
Despite the worldwide ban, agricultural use continued in India,  North Korea, and possibly elsewhere. This intervention, called indoor residual spraying IRS , greatly reduces environmental damage.
It also reduces the incidence of DDT resistance. DDT is a persistent organic pollutant that is readily adsorbed to soils and sediments , which can act both as sinks and as long-term sources of exposure affecting organisms. Routes of loss and degradation include runoff, volatilization, photolysis and aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation.
Due to hydrophobic properties, in aquatic ecosystems DDT and its metabolites are absorbed by aquatic organisms and adsorbed on suspended particles, leaving little DDT dissolved in the water however, its half-life in aquatic environments is listed by the National Pesticide Information Center as years .
Its breakdown products and metabolites, DDE and DDD, are also persistent and have similar chemical and physical properties. Medical researchers in found a measurable and significant difference in the presence of DDT in human milk between mothers who lived in New Brunswick and mothers who lived in Nova Scotia , "possibly because of the wider use of insecticide sprays in the past".
Because of its lipophilic properties, DDT can bioaccumulate , especially in predatory birds. DDT, DDE and DDD magnify through the food chain , with apex predators such as raptor birds concentrating more chemicals than other animals in the same environment. They are stored mainly in body fat. DDT and DDE are resistant to metabolism; in humans, their half-lives are 6 and up to 10 years, respectively. In the United States, these chemicals were detected in almost all human blood samples tested by the Centers for Disease Control in , though their levels have sharply declined since most uses were banned.
Despite being banned for many years, in research showed that DDT residues are still present in European soils and Spanish rivers. The biological thinning mechanism is not entirely understood, but DDE appears to be more potent than DDT,  and strong evidence indicates that p , p ' -DDE inhibits calcium ATPase in the membrane of the shell gland and reduces the transport of calcium carbonate from blood into the eggshell gland.
This results in a dose-dependent thickness reduction. DDT is an endocrine disruptor. Primarily through the tendency for DDT to build up in areas of the body with high lipid content, chronic exposure can affect reproductive capabilities and the embryo or fetus. A Lancet review stated that occupational DDT exposure was associated with increased pancreatic cancer risk in 2 case control studies, but another study showed no DDE dose-effect association.
Results regarding a possible association with liver cancer and biliary tract cancer are conflicting: workers who did not have direct occupational DDT contact showed increased risk.
White men had an increased risk, but not white women or black men. Results about an association with multiple myeloma, prostate and testicular cancer, endometrial cancer and colorectal cancer have been inconclusive or generally do not support an association. A review, whose co-authors included persons engaged in DDT-related litigation, reached broadly similar conclusions, with an equivocal association with testicular cancer. Case—control studies did not support an association with leukemia or lymphoma.
Several meta analyses of observational studies have concluded that there is no overall relationship between DDT exposure and breast cancer risk. A case—control study  using archived blood samples found that breast cancer risk was increased 5-fold among women who were born prior to and who had high serum DDT levels in Reasoning that DDT use became widespread in and peaked around , they concluded that the ages of 14—20 were a critical period in which DDT exposure leads to increased risk.
This study, which suggests a connection between DDT exposure and breast cancer that would not be picked up by most studies, has received variable commentary in third-party reviews.
One review suggested that "previous studies that measured exposure in older women may have missed the critical period". A case control study identified a link odds ratio 3. The findings "support classification of DDT as an endocrine disruptor, a predictor of breast cancer, and a marker of high risk". Malaria remains the primary public health challenge in many countries. Its use in this context has been called everything from a "miracle weapon [that is] like Kryptonite to the mosquitoes",  to "toxic colonialism".