13 Chromium Rich Foods To Keep Your Trace Mineral Intake High
Chromium is widely distributed in the food supply, but most foods provide only small amounts (less than 2 micrograms [mcg] per serving). Meat and whole-grain products, as well as some fruits, vegetables, and spices are relatively good sources. In contrast, foods high in simple sugars (like sucrose and fructose) are low in chromium. Mar 27, · Chromium in the diet. Chromium is an essential trace element that enhances insulin function and influences carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism. It has been suggested that chromium could be used as an adjunct to weight loss and to improve blood sugar control in people with diabetes.
At Healthfully, we strive to deliver objective content that is accurate and up-to-date. Our team periodically reviews articles in order to ensure content quality. The sources cited below consist of evidence from peer-reviewed journals, prominent medical organizations, academic associations, and government data.
The information contained on this site is for informational purposes only, and should not be used as a substitute for the advice of a professional health care provider. Please check with the appropriate physician regarding health questions and concerns. Although we strive to deliver accurate and up-to-date information, no guarantee to that effect is made. The human body contains very small amounts of the essential mineral chromium, states the University of Maryland Medical Center. It is available in many forms, including chromium picolinate.
The university states it is thought chromium assists insulin in delivering glucose to your body's cells to be used as energy. It estimates 90 percent of all Americans may have low chromium levels. This may increase your risk of diabetes and heart disease. The University of How to make custom outlet covers Health System mentions brewer's yeast as the best source for chromium. Brewer's yeast is the byproduct of beer brewing and has a bitter taste.
If the yeast does not have a bitter taste, it probably does not contain chromium. Tablets or capsules are available as well as powder. Good quality brewer's yeast may contain up to 60 micrograms of chromium per tbsp.
Your doctor may prescribe 1 or 2 tbsp per day. Chromium is available in many foods. The amount varies because of agricultural and manufacturing process, states the Office of Dietary Supplements 1. It adds that foods high in simple sugars tend to be low in chromium. Chromium picolinate is not readily absorbed by the intestinal tract. The Office of Dietary Supplements estimates only 0. Vitamin C and niacin assists in its absorption.
The following meats and whole grains are high in chromium: whole-wheat English muffin, 4 mcg;, one slice of whole-wheat bread, 1 mcg; and 3 oz. Carrie Cross has been writing for profit and pleasure for more than 35 years. Her background includes business, real estate, entrepreneurship, management, health and nutrition. A registered nurse, she has published various pieces, including web how to update graphics drivers windows 8, numerous newspaper and magazine articles and columns and six books.
Monitor the health of your community here. More Articles. Office of Dietary Supplements: Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Chromium The information contained on this site is for informational purposes only, and should not be used as a substitute for the advice of a professional health care provider. Written by Carrie Cross. Molecular mechanisms of chromium in alleviating insulin resistance. J Nutr Biochem. Chromium picolinate toxicity. Ann Pharmacother. Liver injury from herbal and dietary supplements.
Food labeling: revision of the nutrition and supplement fact labels. Published May 27, Food and Drug Administration. Updated April A double-blind, randomized pilot trial of chromium picolinate for binge eating disorder: results of the Binge Eating and Chromium BEACh study. J Psychosom Res. Updated July 9, Chromium: Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet. National Institutes of Health. Second-tier how to become a fashion model fast antidepressants: Review and critique.
J Affect Disord.
Chromium is naturally present in foods, an adult aged 19 to 50 years (male) should have 35 micrograms and (female) 25 micrograms. A deficiency of this mineral could cause fatigue, weak bones, poor skin health, poor eye health, poor memory, etc. Here is a list of foods that are rich in chromium. Diabetes has to be efficiently managed to ensure that the body is safe and out of danger from any accompanying symptoms brought on by diabetic conditions. There are several ways to ensure diabetic control and keep the body protected. As a diabetic, you must have heard about Chromium being mentioned. But what about it? Aug 14, · Brewer's yeast is the byproduct of beer brewing and has a bitter taste. If the yeast does not have a bitter taste, it probably does not contain chromium. Tablets or capsules are available as well as powder. Good quality brewer's yeast may contain up to 60 micrograms of chromium per tbsp. Your doctor may prescribe 1 or 2 tbsp per day.
Get the latest public health information from CDC. Have a question? This is a fact sheet intended for health professionals. For a reader-friendly overview of Chromium, see our consumer fact sheet on Chromium. This fact sheet focuses entirely on trivalent chromium. Chromium might play a role in carbohydrate, lipid, and protein metabolism by potentiating insulin action [ ].
Although the precise mechanism for this activity has not been identified, scientists have proposed that chromium binds to an oligopeptide to form chromodulin, a low-molecular-weight, chromium-binding substance that binds to and activates the insulin receptor to promote insulin action [ 4 , ]. Chromium might also have antioxidant effects [ 1 ]. However, recent research has suggested that although chromium might have benefits at pharmacologic amounts e.
The FNB has not evaluated chromium since However, in , the European Food Safety Authority Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies concluded that no convincing evidence shows that chromium is an essential nutrient and, therefore, setting chromium intake recommendations would be inappropriate [ 5 ]. Chromium accumulates mainly in the liver, spleen, soft tissue, and bone [ 2 , 5 , 12 ]. Chromium is excreted mainly in the urine [ 1 , 12 , 13 ]. Urinary chromium levels are therefore a good indicator of chromium absorption.
However, because these levels are closely related to recent chromium intakes, they are not good indicators of chromium body stores [ 4 , 14 ]. Hair levels might reflect past chromium intakes [ 5 ], and some studies have measured chromium levels in hair, sweat, serum, and toenails [ 15 , 16 ]. However, no validated methods for determining chromium status and no clinically defined chromium deficiency state exist [ 6 , 8 ].
DRI is the general term for a set of reference values used for planning and assessing nutrient intakes of healthy people. These values, which vary by age and sex, include:. The FNB therefore established AIs for all ages based on usual chromium intakes in healthy populations [ 2 ]. Table 1 lists the current AIs for chromium.
However, chromium amounts in these foods vary widely depending on local soil and water conditions as well as agricultural and manufacturing processes used to produce them [ 4 , 7 , 12 , ]. For example, the amount of chromium can vary fold in samples of oatmeal because of growing and processing differences [ 21 ].
Some chromium can also be transferred to foods from stainless steel equipment during food processing and from pots and pans during cooking [ 3 , 4 , 10 , 17 , 20 , 22 , 23 ]. Most dairy products and foods high in sugar e. Human milk contains about 0. Small studies in Europe found chromium concentrations ranging from 0. Dietary chromium absorption is low, ranging from about 0. Ascorbic acid and prostaglandin inhibitors, such as aspirin, increase chromium absorption, whereas oxalate and antacids inhibit it [ 1 , 22 , 25 ].
A variety of types of foods and their chromium levels per serving are listed in Table 2. Determining the chromium content of food is challenging because samples are easily contaminated by standard tools used for measurement and analysis [ 2 ].
Therefore, the values in Table 2 should only serve as a guide. The U. Food and Drug Administration FDA developed DVs to help consumers compare the nutrient contents of foods and dietary supplements within the context of a total diet.
The DV for chromium is 35 mcg for adults and children aged 4 and older [ 26 ]. FDA does not require food labels to list chromium content unless chromium has been added to the food. Supplements containing only chromium are also available, and they commonly provide mcg to mcg chromium, although some contain up to 1, mcg [ 16 , 27 ]. Dietary supplements contain many forms of chromium, including chromium picolinate, chromium nicotinate, chromium polynicotinate, chromium chloride, and chromium histidinate [ 18 , 27 ].
The absorption of various forms of chromium is similar [ 6 , 9 ]. For example, research suggests that the proportion of chromium absorbed from chromium picolinate is about 1. These values are similar to the proportion of chromium absorbed from food [ 5 ]. Chromium compounds contain various percentages of elemental chromium. For example, elemental chromium accounts for The Supplement Facts label on a dietary supplement product declares the amount of elemental chromium, not the weight of the entire chromium compound, in the product.
Therefore, data on chromium intakes in the United States are limited. In another study, the mean chromium content per 2, kcal of 22 well-balanced diets designed by nutritionists was about 27 mcg and ranged from about 17 to 47 mcg [ 17 ].
These findings suggest that most people in the United States have chromium intakes similar to the AIs. Data on chromium intakes from dietary supplements are also very limited. Chromium deficiency has not been reported in healthy populations, and no definitive deficiency symptoms have been established [ 3 , 4 ]. These effects were alleviated with pharmacologic amounts of chromium. Although these adverse effects were presumed to be caused by chromium deficiency, the studies did not adequately evaluate the chromium concentrations in the TPN solutions [ 5 ].
Scientists have concluded, based on recent evaluations, that these studies do not provide evidence that the patients had chromium deficiency and thus do not demonstrate that heathy people can develop chromium deficiency [ 3 , 5 , 6 , 10 , 13 ]. Currently, chromium is routinely added to TPN solutions to provide 10—15 mcg chromium per day, a much higher daily amount than the approximately 0.
Thus, the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition and other experts recommend research on parenteral chromium requirements to determine whether chromium levels in TPN solutions should be lowered [ 9 , 13 , 35 , 36 ]. This section focuses on five conditions in which chromium might have beneficial effects: impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes, metabolic syndrome, polycystic ovary syndrome, dyslipidemia, and weight and lean body mass.
Impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes Because chromium might potentiate the action of insulin, studies have examined whether increasing chromium intakes might reduce the risk of impaired glucose tolerance. Numerous randomized controlled trials have assessed the effects of chromium supplements——often at pharmacological doses e. One of the most commonly cited intervention studies of the effects of chromium supplementation for type 2 diabetes was a randomized controlled trial [ 37 ].
The trial assigned adults aged 35—65 years with type 2 diabetes to receive mcg chromium as chromium picolinate , mcg chromium, or placebo twice daily for four months. At 4 months, for example, mean fasting serum glucose levels were 7. HbA1c is a robust measure of blood glucose control because it reflects long-term changes in blood glucose levels [ 38 ]. Several subsequent studies that used various doses of chromium had inconsistent findings.
A review of chromium and glycemic control included 8 meta-analyses and systematic reviews of a total of 58 clinical trials [ 16 ]. The trials lasted from 3 weeks to 6 months and administered 1. The most frequently used form was chromium picolinate, followed by yeasts containing chromium and chromium chloride. Overall, when used as an adjuvant treatment, chromium lowered fasting plasma glucose and HbA1c levels slightly in people with diabetes. However, the clinical significance of these findings is unclear.
The authors of a review of chromium supplementation in people with type 2 diabetes drew similar conclusions, noting the insufficient rationale to recommend chromium supplements for people with type 2 diabetes and that chromium supplements do not help moderate glucose levels in healthy individuals [ 39 ]. Some research suggests that responses to chromium supplementation may vary, and supplements might be more likely to benefit people with more severe insulin resistance and poorer glycemic control [ 18 , 40 ].
In a randomized trial in participants aged 30—70 years with type 2 diabetes, daily supplementation with 1, mcg chromium as chromium picolinate for 24 weeks did not significantly affect insulin sensitivity, fasting glucose levels, or HbA1c values in comparison with placebo [ 40 ].
However, some participants did respond to chromium supplementation, and these people had significantly lower insulin sensitivity 3. Manufacturers market chromium supplements widely in the United States for people with type 2 diabetes, and many adults use them in the hope that the supplements will reduce their risk of diabetes or improve their glycemic control [ 6 , 8 , 18 , 39 ].
However, FDA allows only the following qualified health claim for chromium picolinate dietary supplements:. In its diabetes guidelines, the American Diabetes Association concluded that because studies have not definitively shown that chromium supplementation benefits people with diabetes or obesity, the association cannot recommend such supplementation [ 43 ].
This determination was based on conflicting evidence from poorly controlled or uncontrolled studies. Similarly, the association concluded in its position statement that evidence is insufficient to support the routine use of supplements containing chromium and other micronutrients for glycemic control in people with diabetes [ 44 ]. Additional research is needed to determine whether specific populations e.
Insulin resistance is an integral component of this condition and is a potential therapeutic target for dietary interventions for metabolic syndrome [ 46 ]. A prospective study of 3, adults aged 20—32 years found that baseline toenail chromium concentrations were inversely associated with the incidence of metabolic syndrome over 23 years of follow-up [ 47 ].
For these reasons, some scientists have hypothesized that chromium supplements might benefit people with metabolic syndrome. Only a few clinical trials of chromium supplementation for metabolic syndrome have been conducted [ 46 , ]. One of these trials included 63 adults aged 18 to 75 years with metabolic syndrome who received either mcg chromium picolinate or placebo twice daily for 16 weeks [ 46 ]. In comparison with placebo, chromium supplementation significantly increased acute insulin response to glucose but did not affect HbA1c levels, insulin sensitivity, or other measures of glucose metabolism.
Chromium supplementation also had no effect on body weight or serum lipids. Similarly, in a clinical trial of 70 adults mean age 58 years with metabolic syndrome and impaired glucose tolerance, daily supplementation with mcg chromium mcg with breakfast and mcg with dinner, as chromium yeast for 24 weeks did not affect fasting glucose levels, HbA1c, waist circumference, blood pressure, or lipid levels [ 49 ].
Overall, limited research suggests that chromium supplements do not significantly benefit people with metabolic syndrome. It is characterized by infertility, obesity, dyslipidemia, hyperandrogenism, and elevated risks of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease [ 51 , 52 ].
Because insulin resistance is often a central component of PCOS, studies have investigated the use of chromium supplements in people with PCOS to help maintain glycemic control and reduce lipid levels [ 16 , 53 ].
Four recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses of randomized clinical trials have examined the effects of chromium supplements on signs and symptoms of PCOS [ 52 , ].
One analysis included 7 trials with a total of participants that administered chromium as chromium picolinate at mcg to 1, mcg daily for 8 to 24 weeks [ 52 ]. Chromium supplementation had no effect on fasting blood glucose, total testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone, or luteinizing hormone levels. However, chromium did significantly reduce body mass index BMI by 2. Chromium supplementation had no significant effect on fasting insulin levels or insulin sensitivity, but data from two trials showed that it did significantly lower a measure of insulin resistance.
In addition, one trial included in the review found that chromium supplementation significantly improved a measure of beta-cell function. Similarly, another meta-analysis and a systematic review had mixed findings [ 54 , 56 ]. Overall, the evidence on whether chromium supplementation reduces the risk of PCOS or is beneficial for women with this condition is mixed, making it difficult to draw firm conclusions [ 16 ].
Additional studies with sufficient samples sizes and duration in well-defined populations are needed [ 53 ]. Dyslipidemia Numerous studies show associations between poor chromium status and elevated blood cholesterol levels [ 7 ].
Therefore, scientists hypothesize that chromium supplementation might improve blood lipid levels.