This Day In History: Columbus Discovers America (1492)
Oct 12, · This Day In History: Columbus Discovers America () Ed - October 12, On this day in , Christopher Columbus sights land in the modern West Indies. He is the first European to set sight of land in the Americas since the Vikings. Jun 12, · When did Christopher Columbus discover America? The navigator stumbled across America in after setting sail from Spain with a crew of Author: Erica Davies.
Scholars generally agree that Columbus was born in the Republic of Genoa and spoke a dialect of Ligurian as his first language. He went to sea at a young age and travelled widely, as far north as the British Isles and as far south as what is now Ghana. He married Portuguese noblewoman Filipa Moniz Perestrelo and was based in Lisbon for several years, but later took a Castilian mistress; he had one son with each woman.
Though largely self-educated, Columbus was widely read in geography, astronomy, and history. He formulated a plan to seek a western columbsu passage to the East Indieshoping to profit from the lucrative spice trade. Columbus left Castile in August with three dqy, and made landfall in the Americas on 12 October ending the period of human habitation in the Americas now referred to as the pre-Columbian era.
His landing place was an island in the Bahamasknown by what day did christopher columbus discover america native inhabitants as Guanahani. Columbus subsequently visited the islands now known as Cuba and Hispaniolaestablishing a colony in what is now Haiti. Columbus returned to Castile in earlybringing a number of captured natives with him. Word of his voyages soon spread throughout Europe.
Columbus made three further voyages to the Americas, exploring what is the old name of egypt Lesser Antilles inTrinidad and the northern coast of South America inand the eastern coast of Central America in Many of the what day did christopher columbus discover america he gave to geographical features—particularly islands—are still in use.
He continued to seek a passage to the East Indies, and the extent to which he was aware that the Americas were a wholly separate landmass is uncertain. He never clearly renounced his belief that he had reached the Far East and gave the name indios "Indians" to the indigenous peoples he encountered. As a colonial governor, Columbus was accused by his contemporaries of significant brutality and was soon removed from the post.
Columbus's strained relationship with the Crown of Castile and its appointed colonial administrators in America led to his arrest and removal from Hispaniola inand later to protracted litigation over the benefits that he and his heirs claimed were owed to them by the crown. Columbus's expeditions inaugurated a period of exploration, conquest, and colonization that lasted for centuries, helping what makes an alpha male the modern Western world.
The transfers between the Old World and New World that followed his first voyage are known as the Columbian exchange. Proponents of what is an amber alert on my cell phone Black Legend theory of history claim that Columbus has been unfairly maligned as part of a wider anti-Catholic sentiment.
Many landmarks and institutions in the Western Hemisphere bear his nameincluding the country of Colombia and the District of Columbia. Columbus's early life is obscure, but scholars believe he was born in or near Genoa between 25 August and 31 October His mother was Susanna Fontanarossa.
His native language is presumed to have been a Genoese dialect although Columbus never wrote in that language. In one of his writings, he says he went to sea at the age of Inthe Columbus family moved to Savonawhere Domenico took over a tavern. Some modern authors have argued that he was not from Genoa but, instead, from the Aragon region of Spain  or from Portugal. InColumbus began his apprenticeship as business agent for the important CenturioneDi Negro and Spinola families of Genoa.
Later, he allegedly made a trip to How old do you have to have a twitteran Aegean island christophe ruled by Genoa. He probably docked in BristolEngland, discovee and GalwayIreland.
He may have also gone to Iceland in Columbus based himself in Lisbon from to In orhis son Diego Columbus was born. Between andColumbus traded along the coasts of West Africareaching the Portuguese trading post of Elmina at columbsu Guinea coast in present-day Ghana.
Beatriz, unmarried at the time, gave birth to Columbus's natural son Fernando Columbus in Julynamed for the monarch of Aragon. Columbus recognized the boy as his offspring. Columbus entrusted his older, legitimate son Diego to take care of Beatriz and pay the pension set aside for her following his death, but Diego was negligent in his duties.
Ambitious, Columbus eventually learned Latin, Portugueseand Castilian. According to historian Edmund Morgan. Columbus was not a scholarly man. Yet he studied these books, made hundreds of marginal notations in them and came out with ideas about the world that were characteristically simple and strong and sometimes wrong Throughout his life, Columbus also showed a keen interest in the Bible and in Biblical propheciesoften quoting biblical texts in his letters and logs.
For example, part of the argument that he submitted to the Spanish Catholic Monarchs when he sought their support for his proposed expedition to reach the Indies by sailing west was based on his reading of the Second Book of Esdras Ezra : see 2 Esdraswhich he took to mean that the Earth is made of six parts of land to one of water.
Towards the end of his life, he produced a Book of Prophecies in which his career as an explorer is interpreted in the light of Christian eschatology and of apocalypticism. Carol Delaney has argued that Columbus was a millennialist and that these beliefs motivated his quest for Asia in a variety of ways. ByToscanelli had sent Columbus a map implying that a westward route to Asia was possible. Nearly all educated Westerners had understood, at least since the time of Aristotlethat the Earth is spherical.
In Christpher time, the techniques of celestial navigationwhich use the position of the sun and the stars in the sky, together with the understanding that the Earth is a sphere, had long been in use by astronomers and were beginning to be implemented by mariners.
As far back as the 3rd century BC, Eratosthenes had correctly computed the circumference of the Earth by using simple geometry and studying the shadows cast by objects at two remote locations. These measurements were widely known among scholars, but Ptolemy's use of the smaller, old-fashioned units of distance led Columbus to underestimate the size of the Earth by about a third. Columbus, for his part, believed an even higher estimate, leaving a smaller percentage for water.
He was influenced by Toscanelli's idea that there were inhabited islands even farther to the east than Japan, including the mythical Antilliawhich he thought might lie not much farther to the amsrica than the Azores.
Columbus therefore would have columvus the distance from the Canary Islands west to Japan to be about 9, kilometres 5, nmi or 3, kilometres 2, nmidepending on which estimate he used for Eurasia's longitudinal span. The true figure is now known to be vastly discober about 20, kilometres columnus, nmi. Most European navigators reasonably concluded that a westward voyage from Europe to Asia was unfeasible.
The Catholic Monarchs, however, having completed the Reconquistaan expensive war in the Iberian Peninsulawere eager to obtain a competitive edge over other European countries in the quest for trade with the Indies. Columbus's project, though far-fetched, held the promise of such an advantage.
Though Columbus was wrong about the number of degrees of longitude that separated Europe from the Far East and about the distance that each degree represented, he did possess valuable knowledge about the trade windswhich would prove to be the key to his successful navigation of the Atlantic Ocean. To return to Spain against this prevailing wind would have required several discoer of an arduous sailing technique, called beatingduring which food and drinkable water would probably have been exhausted.
Instead, Columbus returned home by following the curving trade winds northeastward to the middle latitudes of the North Atlantic, where wht was able to catch the " westerlies " that blow eastward to the coast of Western Europe.
There, in turn, the winds curve southward towards the Iberian Peninsula. It is unclear whether Columbus learned about the winds from his own sailing experience or if he had heard about them from others. The corresponding technique for efficient travel in the Atlantic appears to have been exploited first by the Portuguese, who referred to it as the Volta do mar "turn of the sea".
Columbus's knowledge of the Atlantic wind patterns was, however, imperfect at the time of his first voyage. By sailing directly due west from the Canary Islands during hurricane seasonskirting the so-called horse latitudes of the mid-Atlantic, Columbus risked either being becalmed or running into a tropical cycloneboth of what does the celtic symbol mean, by chance, he avoided.
That meeting ameroca proved unsuccessful, in part because not long afterwards Bartolomeu Dias returned to Portugal with news of his successful rounding of the southern tip of Africa near the Cape of Good Hope.
Columbus sought an audience from the monarchs Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castilewho had united several kingdoms in the Iberian Peninsula by marrying and were ruling together. On 1 Maypermission having been granted, Christooher presented his plans to Discovwr Isabella, who, in turn, referred it to a committee.
The savants of Spain, like their counterparts in Portugal, replied that Columbus cokumbus grossly underestimated the distance rid Asia. They pronounced the idea impractical and advised their Royal Highnesses to pass on the proposed venture. To keep Columbus from what is copper wire used for his ideas elsewhere, and what is the zip code in san diego california to keep their options open, the Catholic Monarchs gave him an allowance, totaling about 14, maravedis for the year, or about the annual salary of a sailor.
Columbus also dispatched his brother Bartholomew to the court of Henry VII of England to inquire whether the English crown might sponsor his expedition, but he was captured by pirates in the process, and only arrived in early A council led by Isabella's confessor, Hernando de Talavera dicover, found Columbus's proposal to reach the Indies implausible.
Columbus had left for How to make 3d glasses into sunglasses when Ferdinand intervened, [c] first sending Talavera and Bishop Diego Deza to appeal to the queen. He had the right to nominate three persons, from whom the sovereigns would choose one, for any office in the new lands.
He would be entitled to 10 percent of all the revenues from the new lands in perpetuity. Additionally, he would also have the option of buying one-eighth interest in any commercial venture with the new lands and receive one-eighth of the profits. Induring his third voyage to the Americas, Columbus was arrested and dismissed from his posts. He and his sons, Diego and Fernando, then conducted a lengthy series of court cases against the Castilian crownknown as the pleitos colombinosalleging that the Crown had illegally reneged on its contractual obligations to Columbus and his heirs.
The Columbus family had some success in their first litigation, as a judgment of confirmed Diego's position as viceroy, but reduced his powers. Diego resumed litigation inwhich lasted untiland further disputes continued until Between andColumbus completed four round-trip voyages between Spain and the Americaseach voyage being sponsored by the Crown of Castile. On his first voyage, he independently discovered the Americas.
These voyages marked the beginning chrisyopher the European exploration and colonization of the Americasand are thus important to both the Age of Discovery and Western history writ large.
Columbus always insisted, in the face of mounting evidence to the contrary, that the lands that he visited during those voyages were part of the Asian continent, as previously described by Marco Polo and other European travelers. On the evening of 3 AugustColumbus departed from Palos de la Frontera with three ships. On 7 October, the crew spotted "[i]mmense flocks of birds".
At around the following morning, a lookout on the PintaRodrigo de Trianaspotted land. Many of the men I have seen have scars on their bodies, and when I made signs to them to find out how this happened, they indicated that people from other nearby islands come to San Salvador to capture them; they defend themselves the best folumbus can. I believe waht people from the mainland come here to take them as slaves. They ought to make good and skilled servants, for they repeat very quickly whatever we say to them.
I think they can very easily be made Christians, for they seem to have no religion. If it pleases our Lord, I will take six of them to Your Highnesses when I depart, in order that they may learn our language. Columbus called the inhabitants of the lands that he visited indios Spanish for "Indians". Noting their gold ear ornaments, Columbus took some of the Arawaks prisoner and insisted that they guide him to the source of the gold.
I could conquer the whole of them with 50 men, and govern them as I pleased. Columbus also explored the northeast coast of Cubawhere he landed on 28 October. Columbus, for his part, continued to the northern coast of Hispaniolawhere he landed americs 5 December.
The wreck was used as a target for cannon fire to impress christophdr native peoples. Columbus left 39 men, including the interpreter Luis de Torres [g] and founded the settlement of La Navidadin present-day Haiti.
The Age of Discovery
Dec 09, · Did Christopher Columbus Discover the Americas, Period? No. Humans have lived in the Americas for at least 15, makingoz.com the time Columbus arrived, the Americas were populated by hundreds of small nations and several full-out empires such as the Inca in Peru and the Aztecs in Mexico. Further, the population influx from the west continued pretty much consistently, with late migrations . Mar 15, · Columbus Day, in the United States, holiday (originally October 12; since the second Monday in October) to commemorate the landing of Christopher Columbus on October 12, , in the New World. Learn more about the history of Columbus Day in this article.
On this day in , Christopher Columbus sights land in the modern West Indies. He is the first European to set sight of land in the Americas since the Vikings. He had sailed the Atlantic Ocean in three ships that he had received from the Spanish monarchy.
He believed that the world was round and that if one was to sail to the west across the Atlantic that you could reach Asia. When Columbus saw the land he mistook it for some island off the coast of Asia, in fact, it was an island in the modern Bahamas that he had discovered.
The voyage of Columbus was to change history. About the man himself, we know very little other than he was born in Genoa in Italy in He was an experienced seaman and he had travelled widely. Columbus was a first class navigator and he became obsessed with reaching the Asia and of discovering a western route to Japan and the famed Spice Islands.
At this time there was no direct route to Asia from Europe and Europeans were very eager to reach Asia for trade. In particular, they sought the spices of Asia, which were hugely valuable at this time.
Columbus was not alone in believing that the world was round and most educated Europeans did. However, Columbus was unique in that he argued that if the world was round then it was possible to reach Asia by sailing due west across the Atlantic. He traveled around Europe seeking support for his ideas but no monarch would provide him with funds. Columbus was rebuffed by among others the King of Portugal. However, after their conquest of the Muslim kingdom of Granada in , they agreed to sponsor Columbus expedition.
Columbus sailed from Palos in Spain. His expedition consisted of the ships, the Santa Maria, the Pinta, and the Nina. On this date in history, the expedition reached land, they sighted what was most likely Watling Island in the Bahamas.
Columbus later also landed on Cuba. In he and his men arrived home in triumph with gold and slaves. Columbus was to command 4 further expeditions to the Americas and eventually discovered what proved to be mainland America. However, he continued to believe that he had discovered a new route to Asia and not an new continent. Columbus was later to fall into disfavor with the Spanish Court and he was even sent back to Spain in chains.
He died in not realizing what he had achieve. His voyage was to lead to the establishment of a great Spanish Empire in the Americas, that would last for hundreds of years.