Organs Affected By Diabetes Type 2
Apr 16, · In type 2 diabetes, the liver—a major site of glucose storage—attempts to compensate for the decreased ability of the body to use glucose and increases glucose production. Pancreas (beta and alpha cells). Both alpha cells and beta cells in the pancreas play a central role in type 2 diabetes. Jan 18, · Your brain, eyes, heart, kidneys and nerves can all be affected by problems caused by makingoz.com: Chris Iliades.
High blood sugar hyperglycemia affects people who have diabetes. Several factors can contribute to hyperglycemia in people with diabetes, including food and physical activity choices, illness, nondiabetes medications, or skipping or not taking enough glucose-lowering medication.
It's important to treat hyperglycemia, because if left untreated, hyperglycemia can become severe and lead to serious complications requiring emergency care, such as a diabetic coma.
In the long term, persistent hyperglycemia, even if not severe, how to make a page turn in flash lead to complications affecting your eyes, kidneys, nerves and heart. Symptoms of hyperglycemia develop slowly over several days or what is composite deck boards. The longer blood sugar levels stay high, the more serious the symptoms become.
However, some people who've had type 2 diabetes for a long time may not show any symptoms syztems elevated blood sugar levels. Recognizing early signs and symptoms of hyperglycemia can help you treat the condition promptly.
Watch for:. If hyperglycemia goes untreated, it can cause toxic acids ketones to build up in sysfems blood and urine ketoacidosis. Signs and symptoms include:. During digestion, your body breaks down carbohydrates from foods — such as bread, rice and pasta — into various sugar molecules.
One of these sugar molecules is glucose, a main energy source for your body. Glucose is absorbed directly into your bloodstream after you eat, but it can't enter the cells of most of your tissues without the help of insulin — aee hormone secreted by your pancreas.
When the glucose level in your blood rises, it signals your pancreas syetems release insulin. The insulin unlocks your cells so that glucose can enter and provide the fuel your cells need to function properly. Any extra glucose is stored in your liver and bldy in the form of glycogen. This process lowers the amount of glucose in your bloodstream and prevents it from reaching dangerously high levels. As your blood sugar level returns to normal, so does the secretion of insulin from your pancreas.
Diabetes drastically lowers insulin's effects on your body. This may be because your pancreas is unable to produce insulin type 1 diabetesor it may be because your body is resistant to the effects of insulin or doesn't produce enough insulin to maintain a normal glucose level type 2 diabetes.
As a result, glucose tends to build up in your bloodstream hyperglycemia and may reach dangerously high levels if not treated properly. Insulin or other drugs are used to lower blood sugar levels. Illness or stress can trigger hyperglycemia because hormones produced to combat illness or stress can also cause your blood sugar to rise. Even people who don't have diabetes may develop transient hyperglycemia during severe illness. But people with diabetes may need to take extra diabetes medication to keep blood glucose near normal during illness or stress.
Keeping your blood sugar in a healthy sffected can help prevent many diabetes-related complications. Long-term complications of untreated hyperglycemia can include:. If blood sugar rises high enough or for a prolonged period of time, it can lead to two serious conditions. Diabetic ketoacidosis. Diabetic ketoacidosis develops when you don't have enough insulin in your body. When this happens, sugar glucose can't enter your cells for energy. Your blood sugar level rises, and your body begins to break down fat for energy.
This process produces toxic acids known as ketones. Excess ketones accumulate in the blood and eventually "spill over" into the urine. Left untreated, diabetic ketoacidosis can lead to a diabetic coma and be life-threatening. Hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state. This condition occurs when people produce insulin, but it doesn't work properly. Because insulin is present but not working properly, the body can't use either glucose or fat for energy.
Glucose is then spilled into the urine, causing increased urination. Left untreated, diabetic hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state can lead to life-threatening dehydration and coma. Prompt medical care is essential. Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. Advertising revenue supports our not-for-profit mission.
Don't delay your care at Mayo Clinic Schedule your appointment now for safe in-person care. This content does not have an English version. This content does not have an Arabic version. Overview High blood sugar hyperglycemia affects people who have diabetes. Request an Appointment at Mayo Clinic. Share on: Ehat Twitter. Show references Hyperglycemia high blood glucose.
American Diabetes Association. Accessed June 5, What is diabetes? McCulloch DK. Management of persistent hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Kitabchi AE, et al. Diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state in adults: Treatment.
Know your blood sugar numbers: Use them to manage your diabetes. Accessed May 30, Glycemic control and vascular complications in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Accessed June 6, Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes — Diabetes Care.
The big picture: Checking your blood glucose. Accessed Byy 8, Castro MR expert opinion. Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Butterflies is what i feel inside 7, Related Associated Procedures A1C test. Mayo Clinic Marketplace Check out these best-sellers and special offers on books and newsletters from Mayo Clinic.
Complications of Diabetes – A Disease Affecting All Organs
Nervous system People with diabetes can, over time, develop nerve damage throughout the body. Diabetes affects the nerves by the small blood vessels surrounding the neurons to become damaged leading the shrivel up of the nerves. Nov 29, · How Diabetes Can Cause Damage To Your Body If you have type 2 diabetes, your body either doesn't produce enough insulin or it doesn't respond to insulin properly. As as result, blood sugar levels in a diabetic have to be properly managed to avoid symptoms of hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) or hyperglycemia (high blood sugar). Introduction: Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) is a major health problem worldwide. This metabolic disease is indicated by high blood glucose levels due to insufficient insulin production by the pancreas. An inflammatory response occurs as a result of the immune response to high blood glucose levels as well as the presence of inflammatory mediators Cited by:
Diabetes complications can affect systems throughout your body. That's because the disease can damage the blood vessels that supply these systems, caused by high levels of sugar in your blood. Your brain, eyes, heart, kidneys and nerves can all be affected by problems caused by diabetes. Here's how. Damage to blood vessels caused by high blood sugar — hyperglycemia, in medical terms — is due to narrowing and thickness of arteries, called atherosclerosis, which can cut off blood supply to your brain, leading to stroke, says the U.
As for your eyes, "diabetes causes visual problems due to bleeding and swelling inside the eye," Dr. Kellis says. In addition, small blood vessel damage — called diabetic retinopathy — leads to gradual loss of vision, and is one of the leading causes of blindness.
These possible effects make it important for people with diabetes to have regular eye exams, says the U. National Library of Medicine. In addition to upping the risk for stroke, atherosclerosis also makes people with diabetes more likely to have a heart attack, CDC reports. And, Dr. Kellis says, "diabetes also causes high blood pressure , which can put a strain on your heart and cause heart failure. Heart disease is a major cause of death in people with diabetes, making it important to control other heart disease risk factors, like high blood pressure and cholesterol, along with blood sugar, notes the Cleveland Clinic.
As for diabetic kidney disease, it's caused by damage to small blood vessels inside your kidneys. It is like having a pasta strainer that lets the pasta pass through.
Detecting protein in the urine is an early sign of diabetic kidney disease, which is the leading cause of kidney dialysis and kidney transplant. The Cleveland Clinic says that people with diabetes should have their urine checked for protein once a year. Symptoms of kidney disease can include swelling of your hands, face and feet, along with itching and drowsiness.
Diabetic neuropathy, the nerve damage caused by diabetes, about one-half of people with diabetes, says the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases.
Symptoms may depend on which nerves are affected, Mayo Clinic notes. For example, Mayo says peripheral neuropathy, the most common type, can cause sharp pain, tingling or burning, and numbness.
The Cleveland Clinic notes that diabetic peripheral neuropathy can lead to amputation of your toes, foot or leg. However, regular inspection of your feet and good foot care can greatly reduce the risk of amputation, CDC points out. For instance:. To prevent or delay the effects that diabetes can have on your body, work closely with your doctor to achieve good control of your blood sugar and be screened for early signs of damage. Health Diabetes Diabetes Complications. Dayle Davenport, MD.
She is a graduate of Harvard Medical School. Chris Iliades, MD. Chris is a retired, board-certified ear, nose, and throat surgeon.
He was also a clinical research director and investigator. He has been a medical writer and journalist for more than 15 years. If you have diabetes, work closely with your doctor to manage your blood sugar levels.
Your Brain and Eyes. Your Heart and Kidneys. Your Nerves. Other Effects of Diabetes. Your body defense system may be weakened by diabetes, making it easier to get an infection and harder to fight off infection. Your digestive system may slow down.
This can cause slowing of digestion with gas, bloating and nausea, a condition called gastroparesis. Nerve damage can affect the nerves that regulate blood pressure, which can cause your blood pressure to go up or down unpredictably. Diabetes can make you feel tired and drained of energy.