Nov 08, · Ethics Utilitarian Approach: JS Mill. This is a moral theory that implements a fair choice in an effort to ensure that least Deontology Ethical Theory: I. Kant. The basics of this theory is on what makes something good or bad, right or wrong and Virtue Theory. Virtue theory is an approach to. The Utilitarian Approach •Utilitarianism holds that the morally right course of action in any situation is the one that produces the greatest balance of benefits over harms for everyone affected •The focus is on the consequence of the action: the greatest good for the greatest number •If File Size: KB.
We need to locate our approach to Christian ethics hte an understanding of different approaches to ethics and moral reasoning how does a magnetic generator work general. These can be simply described as command, consequences and character.
It is based on the proposition that actions are inherently right or wrong, as defined by a set of rules or duties. The most moral course of action may be decided by:. Because neither happiness nor self-interest seem to be the highest results God desires for his creation, neither Utilitarianism nor Ethids Egoism are generally considered Christian forms of ethics.
But this does not mean that consequences are not ethically important to God, any more than the fact that there are unbiblical systems of rules means that ethical commands are not important to God.
This is often called virtue ethics. However, from the time of the Reformation until the late appoaches century, virtue ethics — like consequential ethics — was overshadowed by command ethics in most Protestant ethical thinking.
This section borrows elements from Scott B. Most ethics texts categorise Wha, Teleological and Virtue Ethics as distinct approaches. Some include contextual concerns as a separate category. Christians from most church traditions are agreed that the Bible plays an essential role in determining our understanding of such commands and principles. And it is not hard to find Bible verses that speak about work. Beyond these injunctions, there are a multitude of other Bible verses that speak about relationship and integrity issues at work.
The topics include what to do when a customer is dissatisfied, when you lose a key employee, when you feel betrayed, when you feel tempted to cheat and when your employee needs motivation.
In this post from The High CallingAnn Kroeker comments on this article here at TOW, and particularly considers Biblical principles that can be applied to our wnat to take or turn down a job opportunity. Nonetheless, the attempt to formulate a complete book of rules based on Scripture that will speak to every conceivable ethical dilemma would seem to be a what are the approaches to ethics quest.
No set of commands can be vast enough to cover every issue that arises. Is it ethical to award stock options based on performance? Is it ethical to advertise a product to entice people to buy more of it? Is it ethical to have hiring preferences aoproaches under-represented ethnic groups? Is it ethical to wjat a competing company? None of these situations would seem to be covered by a biblical etgics. Moreover, this is the problem that the scribes and Pharisees ran into as they tried to come up with a comprehensive code and ended up not only what are the approaches to ethics by trivia, but also missing the main points.
Yet, at the same time, it would be foolish for us to ignore the fact that Scripture does offer clarity on many issues: stealing, lying, loving the other person including our enemies, acting justly, caring for the poor and oppressed, etc.
A variety of attempts have been made to reduce the multitude of biblical commands to just a few overarching commands or principles. Some examples of this emphasize the importance of the Ten Commandments of Moses,  or the Beatitudes of What are the approaches to ethics  or quotes from the book of Proverbs.
There are many other attempts to do something similar. Most of these include numerous useful insights, but they also often end up creating contrived schemes more than announcing fundamental biblical insights that really help to focus our attention on the heart of things. Building on afe more fundamental biblical principles, Business Through the Eyes of Faith  takes the command to love our neighbor as the primary ethical approacyes.
For you tithe mint, dill, and cumin, and have neglected dhat weightier matters of the law: justice and mercy and faith. It is these you ought to have practiced without neglecting the others. Usually condensed versions of Exodus or Deuteronomy For example, see a useful summary of some of the economic implications of the ten commandments in Max L. Stackhouse, Dennis P. Richard C. Chewning, John W. Eby and Shirley J. Regrettably, this increases rather than reduces the number of fundamental commandments.
It also introduces principles that are not directly from the Bible. He then ran into a similar problem, being forced to devise a number of other principles four presuppositions and what is the meaning of capital in business propositionsto clarify how the most loving thing might be determined.
They also demonstrate the inadequacy of utilizing only one approach to doing ethics; in their cases, the command approach. Both of these examples begin by promoting one absolute biblical command, but then quickly move to consider circumstances and consequences in order to decide which other qualifying commands are required to provide clarity.
Ade the way they talk about love suggests that its demonstration will largely depend how to interview applicants for a job the character of the actor how to relieve shoulder blade tension. Rules and principles are the hallmarks of the command approach to ethics.
Our laws, rules and practices should bring about holiness, justice and love. Hill maintains that Christian ethics requires that all three principles be taken into account all the time. Each, like a leg on a three-legged stool, balances the other two. Overemphasizing the importance of one at the expense of what is a software library others always leads to a distortion in ethical thinking.
For example, an overemphasis on holiness can easily lead to rules that require Christians to withdraw from the world into a kind of impotent isolationism. An overemphasis on justice can easily produce excessively harsh penalties for breaking the rules. An overemphasis on love can sometimes lead to vagueness and lack of accountability. It does provide some help to explore both personal and social ethical dimensions. However, the concepts of love, justice and holiness still need explaining by referring to other principles.
The hope of reducing the vast mass of rules to a few master principles remains once again unfulfilled. It is the end result that determines what is the most moral course of action. This involves trying to anticipate and calculate the results of different courses of action and choosing what is really good or the best result possible. Because so many people think of ethics in terms of the Ten Hwat and of the Bible as a how to tie down a goldwing motorcycle on a trailer book, it is perhaps surprising to discover how often the Scriptures themselves encourage readers to consider the consequences of their actions and let this ths their decision making.
For example, Proverbs is full of warnings and promises — pithy sayings that spell out the likely outcomes of certain actions. Jesus, too, warns his listeners to weigh carefully the consequences of their decisions.
Matt So, too, does much of the rest of the Sermon on the Mount, such as:. Let your light shine before others, so tbe they may see your good works and give glory to your Father in heaven. Come to terms quickly with your accuser while you are on the way to court with him, or your accuser may hand you over to the judge, and the judge to the what is the meaning of fauvism, and you will be thrown into prison.
But when you give alms, do not let your left hand know what your right hand is doing, so that your alms may be done in secret; and your Father who sees in secret will reward you. If you do not forgive others, neither will your Father forgive your trespasses. Considering the consequences is an important biblical approach to our ethical decision-making. Click here to join an in-depth discussion of practical applications of the consequential approach to ethics located in the narrative case study of Wayne.
After reading it, you will find a link to return here. For this reason, it is more an ethics of becoming than of doing. Doing the right thing takes character. Character ethics is developing the habit of doing the right thing along with the ability to know the right thing. It is about how the character of God is shaping our own characters — about whether we are becoming more holy, just and how to put curlers in short hair people, to name three prominent character traits in the Bible.
These are no longer just principles to guide us in our decision-making. These are character attributes that are becoming ingrained in us as default settings. There are several reasons why this is so important. Firstly, because the way we have been talking about ethical dilemmas until now suggests that we have both the time and the ability to reason our way through some complex issues towards making the right decision. And sometimes we do. Approadhes what about most of the time?
Are not most of our decisions made in a split second while we are on the run? How do we relate to this person, or sort out whst problem, or advise a customer, or motivate an underperforming individual or team? Secondly, could it be that many of the ethical choices we make are already substantially decided before we make the decision?
That our character automatically shapes much of what we decide to do? Thirdly, are we really individuals freely making personal decisions, or are our decisions largely shaped by the communities we are part of? Are character how to transfer movies from vhs to dvd community intertwined with our values in ways that are inseparable when it comes to talking about ethics?
David Cook argues that we rarely make conscious moral decisions. If this is the case and our reactions are substantially instinctive, then the importance of developing Godly character is strengthened, because we are making so many of our ethical choices automatically. Good people have a greater chance of making good choices. Just as the command and consequence approaches have to determine which commands and consequences are truly good, the character appgoaches has to determine which virtues are good.
Aristotle emphasized the classical Greek virtues of justice, fortitude, prudence and temperance. The medieval theologian Thomas Aquinas went on to contrast these virtues with corresponding vices — the ones we know as the seven deadly sins. Virtue ethics has remained prominent in Catholic thought, but only recently have Protestant theologians started to enthusiastically explore the character approach.
Mostly they have looked to the Bible as the source of virtues. Nonetheless, even he subordinates the virtue approach to the rule approach. Those Protestant theologians who have tried to identify Christian virtues that humans should cultivate have tended to focus specifically on the life and teaching of Jesus. Stassen and Gushee note:. The Bible is not flat; Christ is its peak and its center. No moral issue should be addressed apart from consideration of the meaning of Jesus Christ for reflection on that issue.
For Stassen and Gushee, the obvious starting place to consider what specific virtues followers of Jesus should aspire to is the Sermon on the Mount and in particular the Beatitudes.
Ethical theories are the fundamentals of ethical analysis as they are deemed as the viewpoints from which guidance is obtained before a decision can be reached on an ethical issue. Each of the three theories emphasizes different points before reaching an ethically correct decision. The paper will give a brief definition of ethics and the types of ethics before outlining the three main approaches to ethics: utilitarianism, deontological and virtue ethics.
The field of ethics is also called moral philosophy and it involves systematizing, defending and giving recommendations on the concepts of right and wrong. Ethical theories are divided into three general subjects namely: normative ethics, descriptive ethics and meta-ethics.
Normative Ethics: Until 19 th century, this was the prevalent form of ethics. It involves itself with what is good or bad and the kind of actions that are wrong or right.
Normative ethics involves on how people should act on principles, how to apply rules and how to make moral choices. Descriptive Ethics: This is the moral anthropology or moral sociology which is basically a description of the moral code that prevails in a society.
This is the study if the ways in which different people and societies answer to moral questions. Descriptive ethics involves different approaches inside a society and its resolution of ethical issues. Meta-Ethic: This is also called the philosophical ethics or moral philosophy. This group of ethics attracts a lot of attention today because it seeks to make out the function and meaning of moral language and ethical terms; good and bad.
Meta-ethics examines the logic used in arriving at what is a moral choice. This is a moral theory that implements a fair choice in an effort to ensure that least harm is done to the parties involved.
A utilitarian approach of ethical values looks at the choices for taking certain decisions in light of the results of doing one thing against the other. This kind of approach requires that one decides what course of action ought to be done by evaluating the consequence of each action.
By focusing on what the outcome of each action is, utilitarianism will demand that one decides on what course of action should be taken considering the benefits or harm of actions without regarding the cost of action. According to Carroll and Buchholtz , utilitarianism is an ethical doctrine that the moral worth of an action is determined by the fact that the theory can be founded on the ability to predict consequences of an action.
A utilitarian will take the course of action that can be a benefit to most people as ethically correct. This basically means that the ultimate determiner of the wrongness or rightness of an action is the effect of action or pleasure.
According to this theory, actions ought to be evaluated by their consequences. The moral thinking here is that humans will try to avoid pains and seek pleasure, otherwise called hedonism. Hedonism will equate good with pleasure. The principles of utilitarianism are therefore the consequential principle and its attractiveness is that it forces the decision maker to think about the general welfare. The basics of this theory is on what makes something good or bad, right or wrong and conforming it to a duty that is discoverable by reason.
Deontological theory is different from the above theory because sometimes it may be that although the consequence of an act is good, some acts are simply wrong. This simply means that some acts are judged as ethical or not based on the actions of the actor. According to the deontology theory, people ought to adhere to their duties and obligations when analyzing an ethical dilemma and before making a decision.
Virtue theory is an approach to ethics that emphasizes on character rather than on consequences or rules as the main element of making an ethical thinking. The theory is often described as an inner disposition to act in a moral and commendable way. Moral value does not arise due to nature but are rather adapted to nature to receive them. The virtue theory judges people by their character rather than by actions that may stray from their normal behavior.
The idea here is that virtues are equally important and when the virtues are combined with principles, they form a foundation for effective ethical action as well as making sound decisions. Ethics has an important place in our lives. In my case, I feel that the utilitarian approach is more applicable to me and what I have gone through today than the others.
I feel that it is our duty to always do whatever we will to produce the greatest balance of happiness instead of unhappiness for all people whom our actions affect. Instead of arguing for the closure of a factory located in my neighborhood that employs about 50 people for polluting the environment, I convinced government officials that mechanisms were already put in place to reduce pollution to recommendable levels.
This was a blatant lie but I quickly notified the manager to look into the issue and address it as soon as possible. I felt that if the company is closed, it will take longer to be re-opened and thus cause unemployment. It was a lie but am glad I saved a couple of jobs for sometime before the situation is corrected.
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