Sexual assault on college campuses
Apr 13, · Peer pressure is a big deal for adolescents and young adults. Even if you work hard to fight it, you may find yourself giving into pressures from friends or classmates. you might go along with just about anything to avoid being labeled a “loser” or “scared-y cat.”. Nov 19, · Aspects of Peer Pressure – Here is a quick overview of peer pressure that also includes some examples of what positive peer pressure is. Avoiding Peer Pressure to Drink – This is an excellent article written from the perspective of a college student and how she deals with the pressures of drinking while in college.
Sexual assault on college campuses is a common problem that often goes unreported. It includes any unwanted sexual activity, from unwanted touching to rape. Alcohol and drugs often play a role in sexual assault on oeer. If you have been sexually assaulted, it is not your fault. You are not alone, and you can get help. Sexual assault is common among female students of all ages, races, and ethnicities. One in five women in college experiences sexual assault.
Studies show that students are at the highest risk of sexual assault in the first few months of their first and second semesters in college. Women who identify as lesbian, bisexual, or gay are more likely to experience sexual assault on prwssure campuses than heterosexual women.
Sexual assault happens everywhere and to women and men of all ages. But it is common on college campuses, and, among adults, sexual assault happens most often to traditionally college-age women 18— Colleges that get federal funding are required to publicly report sexual assault.
You cannot prevent sexual assault because violent or abusive behavior is always the responsibility of the person who is violent or abusive. However, you can take steps to be safer around others and help keep others safe from potential perpetrators: 567. If you are sexually assaulted, it is not your fault, regardless of the circumstances.
If you are in immediate danger, call If you are in a safe place, you can call to report the sexual assault to the police as soon as possible. If the sexual assault happened on campus or the person who harmed you was a student, you can also report it to school authorities for additional support. The school is required to help you continue your education. There are options to help you feel safe on campus, such as requesting to change class schedules, changing dorms, or obtaining a no-contact order.
Schools that receive federal funding may provide other forms of support, such as counseling or tutoring, if you need it because of a sexual assault on campus.
Women who are collete assaulted may face health colleege that include depressionanxietyand post-traumatic stress peed. But how to hand weave a scarf may also have trouble reporting the assault or avid help they are entitled to from the school.
Women may also see the person who harmed them regularly in classes, dorms, or other places on campus, which can make it harder to recover from the assault.
One study found that among rape survivors who stayed on campus, nearly one in three had academic problems and more than one in five considered leaving school. This includes going to school authorities and getting help.
The risk of rape may be up to five coklege higher during a semester studying abroad than on a college campus in the United States. When studying abroad, you can follow the same tips that can help you be safer at your home campus. These include being aware of your surroundings, always going out and staying with a group, either not drinking or limiting your drinking to a level at which you still feel in control, and watching your drink colllege all times.
Before you go, check out information about the country in which you will be living on colege U. Department of State website Students Abroad. You can ib in a program called the Smart Traveler Enrollment Program to get colege information and connect with the U. Sexual Assault Support and Help for Americans Abroad offers pre-travel informationtips for staying safeand an international crisis line.
For more information about sexual assault on campus, call the OWH Helpline at or check out these resources from the following organizations:. Kathleen C. Basile, Ph. Kathryn Jones, M. Sharon G. Smith, Ph. Department of Health and Human Services. Citation of the source is appreciated. This content is provided by the Office on Women's Health. Co,lege Assistance Available. ET closed on federal holidays. Skip to avood content. Popular topics Vision and mission Leadership Programs and activities In your community Funding opportunities Internships and jobs View all pages in this section.
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What men can do to help end sexual violence on campus Share this video link from End Rape on Campus that talks about how men on campus, especially men in fraternities, can help stop sexual violence. Subscribe Pessure receive Violence Against Women email updates. Sexual assault on college campuses. Expand all. How common is sexual assault on college campuses?
Why is sexual assault on college campuses so common? Alcohol and drugs. Campus sexual assault often involves alcohol and drugs. Many young adults use alcohol or drugs for the first time during college. Using drugs or drinking too much alcohol can make you unaware of what is happening around you and to you. Reporting sexual assault. Only one in five college-age women who are sexually assaulted report the attack to the police. Reporting also helps school officials make arrangements so you do not have to have contact with someone who assaulted you.
Peer pressure. College-age women often live with people their own age on campus, rather than parents or other older adults. Hiw may feel peer pressure to participate in social activities like drinking, how to say new years eve in spanish drugs, going to parities, or engaging in sexual activities that make them uncomfortable.
Being forced how to avoid peer pressure in college unwanted sexual activity for social acceptance is a type of sexual coercion. What steps can Preszure take to be safer on a college campus? However, you can take steps to be safer around others and help keep others safe from potential perpetrators: 567 Get to know someone well before spending time alone with him or her. College coloege often about meeting new people and making new friends.
But do not rely only on someone you just met to keep you safe. Go to parties or hangouts with friends. Arrive together, check in with each other, and leave together. Talk about your plans for the evening so that everyone knows what to expect. Meet first dates or new people in a public place. If you feel uncomfortable in any situation for pedr reason, leave.
You are the only person who gets how to increase your vertical leap by 6 inches say whether you feel safe.
Be collegge of your alcohol or drug intake. Research shows that preasure half of sexual assault victims had been drinking when the attack happened. Keep control of your own drink, because someone could put drugs or alcohol in it presure you knowing. This can happen if someone put a date rape drug into your drink.
Date rape drugs have no smell or taste and can cause you to pass out and not remember what happened. Be colldge of your surroundings. Especially if walking alone, avoid talking on your phone or listening to music with headphones. Know where you are as you move around the campus.
At night, stay in lighted areas, or ask a friend or campus security to go with you. Know your resources. You need to know where you can get help if you need it. Know where the campus sexual assault center, the campus police, and the campus health center avkid. Find the campus emergency phones what are dog diapers used for put the campus security number into what is a rostrum camera cellphone.
Have a plan to get home. If you are going collegge use a ride sharing app, make sure your phone is charged. Consider keeping a credit card or cash as a backup for a taxi.
Peer Pressure Can Be Tough To Handle
Mar 24, · Peer pressure still exerted an effect in scenarios with fewer close friends, but the connection of friendship empowered the effect. College and Drinking. When discussing peer pressure, the emphasis usually falls on young people. employ these tips to avoid the activity or leave the situation altogether. Sep 13, · Peer pressure. College-age women often live with people their own age on campus, rather than parents or other older adults. Students may feel peer pressure to participate in social activities like drinking, using drugs, going to parities, or engaging in . Jul 07, · Peer pressure to drink alcohol may influence excessive alcohol consumption, which can have adverse impacts on health and wellbeing. While peer pressure to drink alcohol is extensively studied among youth, less examination exists among adults. This systematic review examined qualitative research studies which explored the role and concept of peer pressure within the context of alcohol.
Metrics details. Peer pressure to drink alcohol may influence excessive alcohol consumption, which can have adverse impacts on health and wellbeing. While peer pressure to drink alcohol is extensively studied among youth, less examination exists among adults. This systematic review examined qualitative research studies which explored the role and concept of peer pressure within the context of alcohol consumption in adults living in the UK.
Thematic analysis was conducted. Five overarching themes were identified. Four of these themes directly address aspects of peer pressure, including: experiences of peer pressure; consequences of peer pressure; strategies to deal with peer pressure; and conditions perceived to affect peer pressure. The fifth overarching theme explains the wider social context influencing peer pressure. Pressure to drink alcohol affects individuals across the life span and can be experienced as overt and aggressive, or subtle and friendly.
Those consuming little or no alcohol are more likely to feel overt forms of peer pressure. Some developed strategies to cope with pressure from drinkers. Peer pressure can result in feelings of social isolation, or giving in by consuming alcohol against ones wishes.
Peer pressure to drink alcohol is a complex and multifaceted phenomenon experienced across adulthood requiring better understanding to support initiatives to decrease the impact of pressure-inducing environments and develop strategies to deal with perceived pressure conditions.
Registered 11 February Peer Review reports. Excessive alcohol consumption has adverse impacts on health and wellbeing [ 1 ]. The harmful use of alcohol is a component cause of over disease and injury conditions [ 2 ] and causes 5.
Both the volume of alcohol consumption and pattern of drinking affect the level of alcohol-related harm. While the proportion of drinkers in the UK has declined over the last decade [ 9 ], this reduction has not coincided with a reduction in alcohol harm. In , UK alcohol-specific deaths reached the highest level since , with death rates among men twice that of women [ 11 ].
A better understanding of the complex driving forces behind drinking behaviour in the UK is urgently needed to inform successful intervention strategies aimed at reducing alcohol-related harm. Normative perceptions are a key predictor of alcohol consumption. Several social-cognitive models, such as the theory of planned behaviour [ 13 ], include norm and social influence related constructs as explanation for behaviour [ 14 ]. Systematic review evidence consistently suggests that norms play a key role in explaining alcohol consumption [ 15 , 16 ].
For example, in a systematic review of theory of planned behaviour-based studies predicting alcohol consumption, Cooke et al. The authors note that the strength of relationship between subjective norms and intentions to consume alcohol is larger than norm-intention relationships typically observed for other health behaviours. The consistency found in relationships between norms and intentions underline the social component driving alcohol consumption.
The social context around alcohol shapes and influences alcohol consumption behaviours, and peer pressure can form a part of this social context. Perceived peer pressure has been shown to increase engagement in risky drinking practices, such as drinking games [ 18 , 19 ]. Alcohol consumption frequently occurs in contexts where social influence through others may operate and is embedded within many social rituals. Although a shift towards home drinking has occurred recently in the UK [ 20 , 21 ], this change in drinking context is still amenable to peer influence, as peers might still be present during alcohol consumption.
Other social drinking occasions, such as mixed location heavy drinking and going out with friends, represent a fifth of drinking occasions in the UK identified by Ally et al. The role of peer pressure in influencing alcohol consumption in adults is poorly understood. Previous systematic reviews on the relationship between peer pressure and alcohol consumption have focussed exclusively on adolescents and college or university students; groups often below the legal age to drink, particularly as the majority of studies have been conducted in a US setting [ 23 , 24 ].
However, perceptions of peer pressure are likely to continue to exist into adulthood. Peer pressure may be especially relevant when individuals are trying to change their past alcohol consumption behaviour, going against established norms and behavioural patterns which have become socially engrained.
This highlights an important structural aspect to peer pressure, whereby cultural practices around the way alcohol is purchased and provided to individuals may perpetuate certain patterns of drinking within social groups, potentially even if perceived or actual peer pressure disappeared.
A more nuanced understanding of peer pressure might inform the development of successful alcohol reduction strategies. The aim of this systematic review is to examine qualitative research studies which have explored the role and concept of peer pressure within the context of alcohol consumption in adults living in the UK. We systematically reviewed qualitative studies reporting on peer pressure within the context of alcohol consumption or alcohol related behaviours and attitudes in UK adults.
This review included qualitative studies which explored peer pressure within the context of alcohol consumption or alcohol related behaviours and views in adults living in the UK. Table 1 details all inclusion criteria.
Studies were excluded when examining adults with alcohol dependence, or adults undergoing treatment for alcohol dependence, or if they were not published in English. Searches were conducted in January and limited to a year time frame January to January All issues published between January and January were checked for possibly relevant papers not yet loaded on electronic databases [ 26 ].
Searches were limited to those published on or after January For each search the first results were reviewed to identify any potentially relevant studies. The reference lists of all included papers were examined for additional relevant papers, and forward citation searches were also conducted on all included papers. All disagreements were resolved through discussion or arbitration with a third reviewer JL.
Data extraction was conducted by one reviewer HM and checked by a second reviewer JL. There is currently no consensus on how to best carry out quality appraisal for qualitative systematic reviews [ 27 ]. This review used the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme [ 28 ] qualitative checklist.
The checklist was operationalised so that for each of the ten quality criteria a study could score two points if the criterion was fully met, one point if it was partially met, and zero points if it was not met at all. This provides a possible maximum score of All studies were appraised by one author HM and a sample of four studies was checked by a second EC. Any disagreements between the two study authors were resolved through discussion.
We carried out a thematic synthesis as described by Thomas and Harden [ 29 ]. Two reviewers HM and JL familiarised themselves with the data through close reading of all the studies. Line by line coding of all data was then carried out by one reviewer HM with a sample of three studies also coded by a second reviewer JL.
Codes were discussed and descriptive themes were tentatively developed and discussed with all review authors. Through this process new themes emerged, and other themes merged together, resulting in overarching themes and sub-themes. An organising framework was constructed to visualise the identified themes and their possible relationships. The review identified references through database searching. After screening and full article assessment, 13 studies met inclusion criteria for the review.
The 13 included studies were published between and Seven of the studies exclusively focused on university students [ 30 , 31 , 32 , 33 , 34 , 35 , 36 ]. Of the remaining studies, all but one focussed on a specific age demographic. Three focused on young people including students [ 37 , 38 , 39 ], and two focused on individuals in midlife [ 40 , 41 ]. Of the seven studies examining university students, the universities were in the following locations: the south of England [ 32 ]; East Midlands [ 34 ]; West Midlands [ 35 ]; North West England [ 36 ]; and North England [ 31 ].
In addition, one study reported the university was in England [ 33 ], and one study recruited from three universities in England and Wales [ 30 ]. Of the six non-student studies, three recruited participants from the west of Scotland [ 40 , 41 , 42 ], and one each in South East England [ 37 ] and South West England [ 39 ].
The majority of studies ten out of 13 included both male and female participants. Two studies examined females only [ 31 , 34 ], and one males only [ 41 ]. Four studies examined light or non-drinkers [ 33 , 34 , 37 , 38 ], the remaining nine studies included participants with a range of drinking profiles.
Eight studies employed interviews for data collection [ 32 , 33 , 34 , 35 , 37 , 38 , 39 , 42 ], three used focus groups [ 31 , 40 , 41 ], one used a narrative question as part of a questionnaire [ 30 ], and one used both interviews and a narrative question as part of a questionnaire [ 36 ].
The assessed quality of studies ranged from a score of ten to 17 out of a maximum of 20 using the operationalised Critical Appraisal Skills Programme CASP checklist. We judged a study as being of higher quality if it scored 15 or more, and lower quality if scoring less than Using this classification, six studies were of higher quality [ 32 , 33 , 34 , 37 , 40 , 41 ] and seven were of lower quality [ 30 , 31 , 35 , 36 , 38 , 39 , 42 ].
A weight of evidence was then applied using these quality assessments, with greater weight given to studies of higher quality. Table 2 provides further details on study characteristics. Five overarching themes were identified and developed into an organising framework, see Fig.
Four of these themes were identified as directly addressing aspects of peer pressure. These were: experiences of peer pressure; consequences of peer pressure; strategies to deal with peer pressure; and conditions perceived to affect peer pressure. The fifth overarching theme provides detail on the wider social context influencing peer pressure.
Each of these overarching themes consists of sub-themes derived from the data. All data from primary study participants is presented in italics and double inverted commas, data from primary study authors is presented in single inverted commas and is not in italics. Peer pressure to drink alcohol was described differently by participants across studies.
However, non-drinkers and some university students experienced a more aggressive form of pressure which was characterised as at times unpleasant and intimidating. Those describing friendly pressure to drink did not perceive this as peer pressure. As one participant in Graber et al. A similar type of friendly pressure is also described by a participant in Orford et al.
In particular, university students reported to be subject to this kind of pressure. Gang of boys dressed in black bin liners, surrounding freshers and shouting at them to down their drinks. Emslie et al. A participant in the study by MacArthur et al. Caving in was reported as a regrettable experience in most cases and was often due to experiencing more aggressive or persistent forms of peer pressure. For non-drinkers, caving in could mean drinking when they did not intend to consume any alcohol, and for moderate drinkers it could mean drinking more than intended.
Jacobs et al. My flatmates forced me to break it.